Renal failure - a violation of the kidney, which leads to a serious disruption of water-salt balance in the body, as well as electrolyte and nitrogen balance. May occur in acute and chronic form.
The cause of acute renal failure can be toxic poisoning of the body (fungi, mercury, drugs), infection, traumatic or burn shock.
Chronic-type renal failure is diagnosed after a long inflammatory process of the urinary tract. “Heart” and “vascular” diseases, diabetes mellitus, endocrine system malformations can also be causes of chronic pathology.
Unfortunately, the primary signs of renal failure are often confused with other illnesses. Because of this, the patient does not receive the necessary treatment in time, and sometimes the healing process is delayed or does not occur at all.
The symptoms of the development of renal failure are described below.
What you will find in this article:
Low back pain
The patient has pain stabbing nature, which is localized on one or both sides of the lumbar region. The pain intensifies especially at the end of the day and after prolonged exertion on the legs.
This symptom of renal failure is important to evaluate in conjunction with other signs. For example, lumbar pain can also occur in a healthy person after prolonged physical exertion.
In case of kidney failure, a person may feel chills in warm, hot weather. First of all, feet and palms are cold.
This happens due to the reduction of red blood cells, in consequence of which there is a violation of the blood supply to tissues and organs. As a result, the person experiences symptoms of iron deficiency anemia.
A person suffering from renal failure has a constant feeling of tiredness, drowsiness and lethargy. It is also associated with a decrease in the number of red blood cells, which adversely affects the brain.
The patient's response speed and concentration of attention decreases. In the absence of proper treatment, muscle pain, cramps and spasms can occur.
Such a delicate problem, as a violation of urination, is the main symptom of renal failure. The patient may observe the following signs:
- Changing the volume of urine per day (up or down)
- The need to urinate is increasing, especially at night.
- The patient feels heaviness and pressure in the bladder.
- Blood traces can be seen in urine.
- Urine becomes darker in color, with a sharp unpleasant odor
- The patient suffers from urinary incontinence
- There is a burning sensation during urination or afterwards.
- There may be foam in the urine.
- Emit urine in small quantities.
If the volume of urine is greatly reduced (less than 400 ml of fluid per day), this can become dangerous and requires immediate medical attention.
Appearance of puffiness
Changes in the kidneys cause fluid retention in the body. Because of this, the legs swell up (often in the upper area of the foot and around the ankle), the face (the area around the eyes is most affected). The hands and abdomen may also swell.
Puffiness in renal failure is easy to distinguish from other causes:
- Puffiness is manifested from the upper part of the body downwards (the face first suffers, then the arms and legs).
- Edemas quickly appear and also quickly disappear.
- The skin over the edema pales.
- The structure of edema is mobile and soft.
- When you press your fingers on the swelling, the trail quickly disappears.
In healthy people, all toxic substances are eliminated from the body along with urine. In case of renal insufficiency, a part of destructive elements is retained in the body. This adversely affects the condition of the patient's skin. There is a noticeable rash or minor hemorrhages, which are accompanied by severe pruritus.
Unpleasant taste in the mouth
The accumulation of toxic substances in the blood can lead to a decrease in appetite. A patient with renal failure after a meal often has an unpleasant odor, as well as a metallic taste in the mouth.
Another important symptom of the disease is a change in taste preferences. Habitual dishes may seem tasteless, with a pungent smell.
Vomiting and nausea
Due to the intoxication of the body with kidney disease, the patient constantly suffers from nausea and frequent gagging urges. Sometimes patients are overwhelmed by obsessive hiccups.
It is important to know that the kidneys have good endurance and most often the signs of impairment of their working capacity are manifested only in case of violations of 80% of the renal tissues.
Therefore, if you find at least two of the symptoms described, you should immediately seek medical help. Renal failure is a serious disease that can be life-threatening, especially with intense and increasing symptoms.