Uneven staining of individual areas of the skin, the formation of spots with uneven edges on the face, hands, neck causes frustration and a natural desire to get rid of these natural "jewelry." It's time to find a way to get rid of age spots.
What are age spots?
Among the cells of the upper layer of the skin, the epidermis, melanocytes are located — cells capable of synthesizing dark pigment.
Melanin, which has a dark color, accumulates under the influence of ultraviolet radiation, shielding excess sunlight and protecting the skin. In Europeans, as a rule, there is little melanin in the skin; therefore, the skin, hair, and iris are painted in light colors. Representatives of the Negroid race, residents of countries with a sunny hot climate have dark skin and hair.
Being in the sun, a light-skinned person observes a gradual process of darkening of the cells - tanning. If melanin in the skin is not enough, the top layer burns and peels off.
It’s no secret that not all people will tan the same way under equal conditions: one in a few days will flaunt a dark chocolate skin, and the other - red sides and burnt shoulders.
Melanin actively fights free radicals, accelerates metabolic processes in the body, accelerates immunity, promotes adaptation in new conditions, protects the liver, thyroid gland, hypothalamus and adrenal glands from dystrophic changes.
Areas of skin, oval or irregular in shape, that do not rise above the surface of the skin and are darker than the rest of the skin color are called pigment spots.
The reasons for their occurrence:
- Individual response of the body to prolonged intense sun exposure;
- Age changes;
- Drug intake;
- Side effect on cosmetics and procedures;
- Vitamin C deficiency;
- Exchange violations;
- Diseases of the digestive system;
- Pathology of the liver and gallbladder;
- Pituitary tumors;
- Mental disorders, stress, hysteria, neurosis;
- Gynecological diseases;
- Hormonal changes, including during pregnancy
Excess pigmentation during pregnancy, as a rule, passes after childbirth.
One type of excessive pigmentation of the skin, inherent in people with blond hair and eyes.
Freckles - chiseled pigment aggregations, can merge into larger spots.
Appear in the spring on the face: under the eyes, on the nose, above the upper lip, on the arms, back. With proper protection, the use of sunshine with a high UF-index during this period, the appearance of freckles can be avoided, although for many they do not pose a problem.
Lentigo appear under the action of ultraviolet radiation on the hands and arms of the arms, shoulders, shoulder blades, in the decollete area.
During the period of menopause, the skin condition undergoes significant changes, the color of lentigo becomes richer, some specks can merge into large formations.
Large age spots
Melasms and chloasms are spots of rather large shape, which tend to merge. The main location is the face, neck, ears. Below the spots come down rarely. The main reason for the appearance of chloasms is hormonal disorders, the use of hormonal medications, aromatics. Solar radiation aggravates the skin and accelerates the formation of stains.
Melasma and chloasma significantly increase the risk of developing melanoma (skin cancer).
Treatment of pigment spots
- Chemical peels are an ideal way to remove freckles and small pigment spots. In the salon, cosmetics, which include fruit acids, are spotted on the face. They are able to destroy melantocytes, cells that contain and synthesize dark pigment. As a result of the procedure, the skin acquires a uniform light color.
- The face dermabrasion is a sufficiently traumatic method, and is suitable for young skin that is capable of fast and painless regeneration. Senile stains are removed in other ways. The essence of the method comes down to using a brush or an abrasive cutter: the upper layers of skin with excessive pigmentation are removed mechanically. Manipulations are performed under anesthesia, rehabilitation takes time and careful care of the wound, the affected skin area has a different appearance for about a year.
- Mesotherapy is a course of microinjections, with the help of which special compositions are introduced to the depth of the pigment spot, contributing to the destruction of pigment and the normalization of skin color. Mesotherapy has no age limit, is physiological and guarantees a long lasting result.
- Phototherapy - non-invasive removal of deep pigment spots using high-intensity light pulses. The wavelength of light is chosen in such a way that only cells containing melanin are exposed. The rest of the skin is protected from mechanical and thermal damage.
- A modern and most acceptable way to fight skin pigmentation is to remove stains with a laser. Tissues are removed in layers, ensuring accurate exposure without damaging the surrounding areas. The method is popular for its sterility, bloodlessness, non-contact, accurate visual control and stable cosmetic effect.
After any of the above procedures, it is necessary to protect the skin from sunlight.
The decision to conduct cosmetic manipulation takes a dermatologist, each of the procedures has its own contraindications, which must be taken into account.
Reviews of people who have taken advantage of the salon procedures, testify to their effectiveness, the greatest preference is given to laser stain removal.
At home, you can remove pigment spots using the folk remedies:
- Whiten the skin at any time of the year will help mask of sweet pepper. Pepper is ground on a fine grater or in a blender, applied to the pigment area for 15-20 minutes, then washed off with warm water;
- Parsley is one of the popular components of whitening masks. Stems and leaves are crushed, applied to the skin (30 minutes), washed off with warm water. 2 tbsp. l parsley is mixed with the same amount of softened honey and lemon juice. With constant use, the mask quickly lightens problem areas;
- 1 tsp. lemon or lemon juice mixed with ¼ pack of yeast, add 1 tbsp. l milk or kefir. Apply to the skin (25 minutes), rinse with warm water;
- The pulp of cucumber contains a large number of active substances, therefore it is used as a main component for whitening masks. Olive oil, lemon juice, finished cosmetic cream are added to the cucumber;
- Berries are rich in fruit acids: 2 tbsp. l juice of viburnum and black currant mix, add 1 tsp. honey, put on dark areas, cover with a napkin on top. Leave the mask for 15-20 minutes, rinse with warm water;
- 1 tbsp. l Onion juice mixed with 1 tsp. honey, apply on age spots. After 15 minutes, remove with a cloth moistened with kefir;
- 1 tbsp. l horseradish mixed with an equal amount of green sour apple pulp and smear pigment spot. Horseradish, due to the sharp irritating odor, is not recommended for bleaching the skin of the face and neck;
- A mask of raw potatoes (2 tablespoons of grated pulp mixed with ½ tsp. Of olive oil and 1 tsp. Of milk) will not only remove excessive skin pigmentation, but restore the skin color, return velvety to it, relieve swelling;
- For skin whitening use 30% hydrogen peroxide: 1 tsp. mix with 2 tsp. boric acid, add 1 tsp. ammonia. Instead of ammonia is allowed to use glycerin. The mask is applied dotted for 10 minutes. Especially gently need to whiten your skin. In the event of a burning sensation, pain, cramps, any discomfort, the agent must be removed immediately;
- Mix 1 tbsp. l Table vinegar (9%), 2 tsp. hydrogen peroxide and 1 tbsp. l vodka. The mixture is rubbed on the skin, after which the skin care cream is applied. In addition to pigmentation, the oily shine of the skin also disappears;
- As a lightening agent, all dairy products are used: sour cream, natural yogurt, yogurt, kefir. They can be applied abundantly without fear and kept for a long time;
- Calendula flowers (1 tablespoon) pour boiling water, leave for 15 minutes, cool, strain. The broth is used for washing and wiping the skin with increased pigmentation;
- White or blue clay is diluted with water to the state of thick cream. As an additional component, you can use raw protein 1 egg, lemon juice, cucumber pulp. The mixture is applied on the face for 30-40 minutes, wash off with warm water;
- Mix honey and fish oil in equal proportions, apply on the skin, after 15 minutes remove
After removing the homemade masks, you should apply a nourishing cream that meets age requirements.
For skin care with increased pigmentation in the home arsenal should be cosmetics:
- Peels and soft skin scrubs. It is recommended to use them no more than 1-2 times a week;
- Bleaching masks remove the cornified cells from the skin surface, fight against excessive pigmentation;
- Serum, creams with whitening and softening effect.
To get rid of age spots really both independently and with the help of specialists. In the first case, it will take time and patience, in the second - determination and the availability of money to pay for hardware procedures.
Before starting the manipulation, you should consult a dermatologist: serious diseases, including melanoma, can be hidden under the guise of skin defects.