When passing a medical examination, registering a woman for pregnancy, admitting to hospital, donating blood, one of the questions that the patient asks for is the blood type and the Rh factor. This information is of great value in case of urgent blood transfusion, emergency surgery. How to find out blood type and what to do with this information?
What you will find in this article:
Blood types: classification
For simplicity and convenience, many countries use the AB0 system, according to which all people are divided into 4 large groups depending on the presence / absence of antigens and antibodies in the blood.
- Two types of antibodies (plasma agglutinins) - α and β
- Two types of antigens (substances that simulate the production of antibodies), in erythrocytes –A and B
Accordingly, the following options are possible:
- Group 0 (first group) - both types of antibodies are present in the blood, but there are no antigens. This blood type is the most common. It is believed that she is the ancestor of all others, resulting from changes in the living conditions and nutrition of people.
- Group A0 (second group). In the blood, respectively, antigen A and agglutinin β are present.
- Group B0 (third group) - characterized by the presence of antigen B in plasma, and α in antibodies in erythrocytes.
- Group AB (fourth group) is the opposite of the first, both antigens migrate to the blood, there are no antibodies. This group is the youngest, scientists attribute its appearance to the spread of mixed marriages, a peculiar evolution of the circulatory system: the fourth group is the rarest, but people with such blood are universal recipients;
People with the first group of blood are considered universal donors; it fits the rest, while patients with blood 0 accept only blood of their own group for transfusion. Accordingly, the blood of the first and its groups is suitable for the second and third groups.
In addition to the blood group, another important indicator is taken into account: the Rh factor.
If antigen D is detected on the surface of erythrocytes (red blood cells), it is customary to speak of a positive Rhesus and denote it in the letter Rh +. "Positive" are about 85% of people on the globe. The remaining 15% of the antigen D is not detectable, called rhesus-negative and denoted as Rh-.
Here is how blood groups are written indicating the Rh factor:
- II (0) Rh + / I (0) Rh -
- II (A0, AA) Rh + / II (A0, AA) Rh-
- III (В0, ВВ) Rh + / III (В0, ВВ) Rh-
- IV (AB) Rh + / IV (AB) Rh-
Where to find the blood group?
- The easiest way to determine blood type is a test in a clinic or medical center. The blood is mixed with standard, specially prepared sera and by agglutination, after 5 minutes a group is determined. Similarly, determine the Rh factor with anti-Rh serum. The test takes a little time, is highly accurate and allows in emergency cases to quickly give an answer about the patient's group membership.
- Make yourself an express test at home.
Home Rhesus Factor Test
The pharmacy sells kits for self-determination of blood type. They include a test strip on which reagents are applied, a needle, a pipette and a circuit for determining the result.
A drop of blood from a finger is applied to the test strips and after a certain time the result is evaluated.
Before you make a determination, you need to make sure that the package is intact, that the test has not expired. This method is convenient for determining the blood group in the elderly, weakened, bedridden patients, and young children.
Determination of blood type in the laboratory is more reliable and, if possible, it is worthwhile to entrust such a responsible matter to professionals.
Where is the blood type recorded?
After determination, data on blood group and Rh factor are entered into the medical record. Men of military age, military service women receive a mark in the military ID. A similar stamp can be put in the passport so that, if necessary, urgent assistance is provided immediately.
Ways to conduct a study of belonging to blood groups without testing
- The blood type of the child can be determined by the parents. In some cases, the option is possible, in some the answer will be unequivocal. For parents with the same Rhesus, the child inherits it with a probability of 100%. If the parents have different Rh factor, then the chances of inheriting any of them are equal. In cases where the Rh-positive mother develops a Rh-negative fetus, a Rh-conflict is possible, fraught with miscarriage and miscarriages in the early stages. It is very important to take action by the doctor.
- The first group is monovariant: parents with blood group 0 can only be born with the same group. In other cases, options are possible. The first group can “manifest” in parents with the second and third groups, but never with the fourth.
Since the exact answer can be obtained only for a child, from both parents of which the first positive blood group, without tests, is not enough in all other cases.
The combination of different blood types, especially when the mother is with the first group, can lead to the development of late gestosis and eclampsia, the woman should be under the supervision of a physician, constantly monitor blood clotting, and if necessary, take blood thinners. In some cases, antigenic sera are indicated. Newborns often have hemolytic jaundice.
For blood groups, determine the nature of a person and make up special diets:
- People with the first group of blood are light and sociable, purposeful, emotional and trusting. In food, they prefer meat products, and in order to lose weight, they need to give up dairy food;
- The second group of blood "has" to dreaminess and solitude, involves an analytical mindset and the ability to listen to the interlocutor. In the diet of such people is dominated by vegetable food, but the meat should be reduced to a minimum;
- People with the third group of blood - creative bohemia, originals and lovers of shocking. They love dairy products, but fatty meat, seafood, nuts are foreign to them;
- The fourth group "rewards" light character, excellent intuition and independence. They are recommended seafood, green vegetables and fruits, rice; banned - red meat and offal, mushrooms, nuts, some fruits.
Determination of blood type by taste, appearance or character traits is akin to fortune telling. The medical test is not complicated, it is worth doing it once, fix the results officially and no longer return to this issue.