Inflammation of the nasal mucosa, accompanied by swelling, discharge from the nasal passages, sneezing can be triggered by various factors, including the reaction to exposure to allergens. Treatment of allergic rhinitis depends on the course of the disease and is prescribed by a specialist.
What you will find in this article:
Symptoms of allergic rhinitis
The disease is manifested by an allergic reaction of the body to the influence of external factors, accompanied by:
- obstructed nasal breathing;
- mucosal edema (nasal congestion);
- flowing clear nasal secretions;
- sneezing, itching in the nose, in the mouth, in the upper palate;
- redness of the skin of the nose , face, their swelling;
- irritability, insomnia
The causes of the allergic reaction are in contact with the pollen of plants that are flowering at different times of the year:
- Hazel, birch, oak, alder and other flowering trees - the last decade of April - until the end of May;
- Timothy grass, fescue, wheat grass, bluegrass, foxtail and other cereals “dust” from the beginning to the middle of summer;
- Plantain, wormwood , quinoa and other weeds cause allergic rhinitis in late summer - early autumn
Types of allergic rhinitis
The classification of allergic rhinitis depends on the period of its manifestation, the duration of the course, the nature of the disease.
Frequency of illness
- seasonal rhinitis, which is manifested by a reaction to a specific allergen, the peak of the disease coincides with the flowering of the plant;
- year-round rhinitis, signs of which in one form or another appear throughout the year.
By way of reaction to an allergen
- persistent form, the symptoms of which are not explicitly expressed, but are permanent. This is chronic allergic rhinitis;
- intermittent form of rhinitis, in which the signs appear only through direct contact with the allergen.
Without timely examination and proper treatment, vasomotor allergic rhinitis becomes chronic, in which the nasal mucosa is severely hypertrophied, nasal congestion is not relieved even by vasoconstrictor preparations, complications associated with the ears are possible.
Allergic rhinitis in a child
The reaction to external allergens is manifested in children, even in infancy. In addition to grass and tree pollen, a disease can be provoked by:
- Pets (saliva protein, wool, urine);
- Wild animals (rats, birds);
- Dust mites;
- House dust;
- Toys, things, bedding;
- Food allergens in children under one year of age
Indirectly contribute to the development of allergies in children:
- metabolic disorders;
- immaturity of the nervous, endocrine systems;
- GI pathology, liver;
- diseases, pathologies of nasopharynx development;
- blood diseases, hypotension;
- burdened heredity;
- forced long contact with allergens;
- frequent colds;
- use of antibiotics without evidence
Seasonal rhinitis clearly correlates with the appearance of the allergen and the season.
For example, during the flowering period of certain plants, the child is tormented by severe nasal congestion, itching in the nose, ear, eyes, and the skin of the face may itch. The child sneezes, his eyes water, his appetite disappears, because with a stuffy nose he does not feel the taste. After cessation of contact with the allergen, the symptoms disappear.
Year-round rhinitis delivers more trouble to parents: symptoms, to a greater or lesser extent, do not make themselves forgotten throughout the year. The child feels a constant swelling of the mucous membranes and nasal congestion, does not sleep well and eat. Hypertrophied mucous becomes thinner, nosebleeds appear.
Because of the stuffy nose, children breathe through their mouths, which, in turn, leads to complications:
- dry nasopharyngeal mucosa reacts with a dry cough;
- tissue of adenoids grows, they increase in size;
- ear pathologies –otitis, eustachitis and others develop.
A child’s heart rate increases due to a lack of oxygen in organs and tissues, shortness of breath, headache, sleep and appetite are disturbed. Such children quickly get tired, scattered, inattentive.
To decide how to treat allergic rhinitis in a child, you must first make an accurate diagnosis.
The survey includes:
- analysis of nasal discharge. During exacerbation of rhinitis of an allergic nature, a large number of eosinophils are observed in the material under study;
- complete blood count for eosinophilia;
- determination of the level of immunoglobulin E in serum;
- allergen fixation
In addition, it is necessary to conduct the following studies:
- conducting skin tests;
- carrying out intracutaneous tests;
- conducting provocative tests (direct contact with the allergen)
Treatment of allergic rhinitis in childhood has its limitations associated with the list of drugs prohibited for children.
How to treat allergic rhinitis
- eliminating or minimizing contact with the allergen (air conditioning, air humidification, use of filters, masks)
гистаминовых рецепторов (супрастин, тавегил, диазолин, фенкарол, атаракс , зиртек, кестин, кларитин и другие). a) H-1 blockers of histamine receptors (suprastin, tavegil, diazolin, fenkarol, atarax, zyrtec, kestin, claritin and others). Drugs can reduce attention, cause drowsiness. Tablets or solutions prescribed by a doctor.
(спрей, капли в нос), снимающие отечность слизистой и облегчающие дыхание. b) vasoconstrictor drugs (spray, nasal drops), which relieve mucosal puffiness and facilitate breathing.
, в индивидуальном порядке, только под контролем врача. c) in severe cases, corticosteroids are prescribed individually, only under the supervision of a physician.
How to find the cause of the disease? How to help your baby? And in general, how to live with it? In this video, Dr. Komarovsky and answer these questions.
Dr. Komarovsky in the treatment of allergic rhinitis in children places special emphasis on the observance of the correct temperature in the room, humidifying the air, recommends washing the nasal passages with saline or salt water.
Allergic rhinitis in adults
Adolescents and young people are most susceptible to the adverse effects of allergens. For adults, for "child" allergens are added:
- aerosols (hairspray, antistatic, deodorant);
- tobacco smoke;
- car exhaust;
- household chemicals
It is important to be able to distinguish allergic rhinitis from the commonplace cold. The main differences :
- Itching in the nose for allergies and the absence of a cold. In medicine, there is a special term “allergic salute”, which refers to involuntary movement, with a wave of your hand if you wish to scratch your nose;
- Repeated paroxysmal sneezing indicates constant irritation by the mucous membrane of the allergen;
- Tearing is an additional symptom of allergy;
- When vasomotor rhinitis decreases the sense of smell and, accordingly, the ability to distinguish the tastes of products;
- With allergies there are no catarrhal manifestations (redness, pain, sore throat, body temperature remains normal)
Allergic rhinitis is not contagious to others, unlike the common cold.
Diet to prevent cross-allergy
Allergists warn that the consumption of certain foods during the flowering of trees and herbs can provoke an exacerbation of an allergic reaction, so they should be abandoned:
- During the flowering period of trees (April-May), patients suffering from allergies to tree pollen cannot eat apples, peaches, pears, plums, cherries, apricots, kiwi, potatoes, parsley, tomatoes, carrots, celery, olives, honey, brandy ; medicines - pine cones and buds, birch leaves, buds, linden flowers.
- Allergies to cereals and meadow herbs will increase the bread from wheat and rye flour, semolina, oatmeal, millet, rice porridge, muesli, beer, kvass, vodka; cereal-based drugs.
- During the flowering of weeds (late summer-early autumn), sunflower (oil, halva, seeds), mustard, pumpkin, honey, mayonnaise, lettuce, spinach, vermouth are excluded from the diet. medicines containing dandelion medicinal, chamomile pharmacy, mother and stepmother, dog rose, burdock, wormwood, bitter, tansy, sunflower, yarrow, string, cornflower blue.
- In case of allergic reactions to fungi and yeast, moldy cheeses, fermented vegetables, fermented milk products, grapes, raisins and dried fruits, kvass, beer, dry wine, champagne are prohibited; Penicillin Medicines, Vitamin B, Brewer's Yeast
Folk remedies for allergies
- For treatment, aloe juice or sea buckthorn oil is instilled into the nose (2-3 drops in each nostril several times a day);
- Dandelion flowers scroll through a meat grinder, squeeze the liquid, diluted with warm water 1: 1, bring to a boil. Ready broth is taken three times a day 30 minutes before meals, 2 tbsp. l
- Jam or black currant juice can help get rid of allergic rhinitis.
- In 0.2 l of warm boiled water is diluted with 2 tsp. apple cider vinegar and 1 tsp. honey Drink ready drink during the day.
- The crushed egg shell is mixed with lemon juice (3-4 drops of juice per 1 tsp. Shell) and added to food.
Before turning to traditional medicine recipes, however attractive they may seem and no matter how enthusiastic the reviews are about them, a patient with an allergic rhinitis needs to make sure that the components of the medication do not aggravate the allergy.
Such a runny nose in pregnant women should be treated strictly under the supervision of a physician, self-treatment in this case is not permissible!
Allergic rhinitis, the code for the international classification of the disease -10, is a response of the body, not external stimuli, and should be treated, since bronchial asthma and other diseases can become a complication of the disease. Treatment is prescribed by an allergist.