If a few hours after eating, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea suddenly started, the temperature rose and weakness occurred, then it is likely that food poisoning occurs. It is necessary not only to be able to recognize the symptoms of ill health, but also to provide first aid in order to reduce the consequences of the use of poor-quality food to a minimum.
What you will find in this article:
Causes of food poisoning
In case of non-observance of the temperature regime, shelf life of food products in them, an environment favorable for the development of pathogenic microflora arises. Bacteria, among them - Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella and others, not only multiply actively, but also release toxins as waste products.
When ingested into the human digestive tract, such food leads to a malfunction of the gastrointestinal tract with associated signs of ill health.
The most common is poisoning with poor-quality dairy, meat, fish products, pastries with creams, salads with mayonnaise dressing, homemade canned food, as well as poisonous mushrooms and berries.
Types of food poisoning
The classification of food poisoning includes three groups:
- toxicoinfection (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella, Proteus, Enterococci, Parahemolytic Vibrio, etc.)
- bacteriotoxicosis (staphylococcus, botulinum bacillus)
- mycotoxicosis (microscopic fungi)
- poisoning a priori by poisonous plants and animals;
- poisoning by toxic products formed in food as a result of exposure to certain conditions (solanine in potato tubers under the influence of sunlight)
- chemicals in food (pesticides, nitrates, food additives)
Bacterial poisoning is not transmitted from a sick person to a healthy one, the way of infection is through food.
Signs of food poisoning
The severity of poisoning depends on several factors:
- body mass
- the health of the digestive tract and the state of the immune system;
- the type of pathogen;
- the amount of spoiled food that has entered the body
As a rule, the first signs of food poisoning appear after 4-5 hours, but in some cases, symptoms may appear within an hour or, on the contrary, a day and later.
Suspected food poisoning can be on the following grounds:
- Discomfort, pain, cramps in the stomach, intestines;
- Nausea, vomiting;
- Bloating, flatulence;
- Diarrhea (stool has an unpleasant, pungent odor, feces are not overcooked food pieces);
- Weakness, dizziness;
- Clouding of consciousness;
- Tachycardia, shortness of breath
Body temperature may rise.
What to do with food poisoning
First aid for suspected food poisoning should be provided immediately, at home. It includes the following actions, regardless of whether the symptoms are observed in an adult or in a child:
- gastric lavage is necessary to remove from the body of substandard food and, if possible, toxins. For this purpose, a solution of baking soda or a slightly colored solution of potassium permanganate is used. The victim drinks liquids and then stimulates repeated vomiting, until the contents become clear, without any food impurities;
- The remaining toxins from the body are derived enterosorbents - substances that have a huge absorbency. These include activated charcoal tablets, polyphepan, enterosgel;
- due to vomiting and diarrhea, the body loses fluid, so it is important to restore the water balance with abundant drinking. Along with warm boiled water, rehydron and other medicines can be used, the composition of the solutions of which is close to that of the physiological body fluids. It is important to give the patient small portions so as not to provoke repeated vomiting;
- with food poisoning shows bed rest and rest.
Symptomatically can be used antipyretics, antispasmodic drugs.
At the first signs indicating food poisoning in a child, you should call an ambulance. Independent administration of antibiotics is not allowed: what to take, and in what dosage the doctor should say.
In this video, Dr. Komarovsky emphasizes the danger of food poisoning for a child’s body, especially at the age of three. When severe intoxication may occur loss of consciousness, hallucinations, blurred vision, orientation. Children need to call an ambulance immediately, the risk of death is high!
Food with food poisoning
A sparing diet is important for the patient, helping to restore the water-salt balance of the body, not irritating the inflamed mucous of the stomach and intestines, easily absorbable and nutritious.
What can you eat
- on the second day, in addition to abundant drinking, broth is added (without meat), vegetable puree (100 g)
- The following shows rice porridge, boiled in water, without adding salt, seasoning, oil (200 g), rice water, vegetable soup without meat, a few crackers
- vegetable casserole (without adding eggs), broths, boiled fish
Recommended for reconstitution:
- porridge on the water (rice, buckwheat)
- broths (meat, vegetable)
- meat and fish in the form of steam cutlets
- vegetables boiled or baked
- crackers, fresh cookies
- mineral water
- herbal teas
The list of prohibited products included:
- dairy products without exception
- fatty broths
- raw vegetables
- fried meat, fish
- biscuits, pastries, cakes, pastries
- oatmeal, millet, barley porridge
- sweet drinks, soda, juices
Prevention of intestinal poisoning
To avoid illness and reduce the likelihood of poisoning, you should:
- pay attention to the shelf life, especially for perishable products;
- Do not take products with inadequate storage conditions;
- foodstuffs in which the integrity of the package has been compromised (dented, torn) is not worth buying;
- refuse to eat foods that have an unpleasant or not characteristic for them smell, color, consistency;
- sediment in liquid and puree products, gas bubbles, delamination indicate the occurrence of chemical reactions, changes in the composition and properties;
- on vacation, excursions should be careful to try unfamiliar food, if possible, to abandon it, if there is no confidence in the quality;
- observe personal hygiene, wash hands after visiting the restroom, the street, before eating;
- wash fruits and vegetables thoroughly;
- use separate cutting boards for raw meat, fish, vegetables, bread;
- conduct an audit in the fridge and ruthlessly destroy foods that cannot be eaten
Now you know why food poisoning can occur, what measures should be taken in the first place, what they eat to recuperate. The treatment is prescribed by the doctor, if necessary, the patient is left in the hospital.