Burns are a terrible thing, but no one is immune from them, so what kind of first aid for burns should be, every person should know to help another person in trouble.
What you will find in this article:
Types of burns
First, determine what are the degree of burns. When the epidermis is injured, be it from boiling water, oil, or chemical agents, when there is redness on the skin, pain appears, then it is 1st degree or superficial burn.
, когда появляются волдыри, то это ожог 2-й степени. If the deeper layers of the epidermis are damaged when blisters appear, then this is a 2nd degree burn. Damage to the 1st and 2nd degree can be cured independently.
, когда происходит омертвление всех слоев дермы, наблюдается сморщивание тканей, а вокруг начинается отечность. At the 3rd degree , when the necrosis of all layers of the dermis occurs, wrinkling of the tissues is observed, and swelling begins around.
происходит омертвлением всех тканей, вплоть до костей. At the 4th stage , the necrosis of all tissues, including the bones, occurs.
When receiving more severe damage to the skin, immediate medical attention is required.
The most frequent injuries
Perhaps this is thermal damage, for example, boiling water. According to statistics, they occupy the 2nd place after injuries from accidents on the roads.
At first, from the high temperature on the skin, all the harmful substances die, but then an open wound appears on it. This is where a man is waiting for danger!
The wound can be a source of reproduction of harmful microorganisms, so in no case should you put potatoes on the wound, do not wash it with urine.
больное место минут на 15 надо подставить под струю холодной воды, здесь ни лед, ни снег не подходит. In case of thermal burns, a sore spot for 15 minutes should be put under a stream of cold water, here neither ice nor snow is suitable. If there is no water, then ice or snow, wrap in a bag, then apply on the damaged surface. It is impossible to keep ice for a long time in order not to freeze a sore spot, 5 minutes is enough.
3% перекисью водорода или слабо-розовым раствором марганцовки. Next, the wound should be treated with 3% hydrogen peroxide or a weak pink solution of potassium permanganate. You can take Alazol or Panthenol aerosol, process it 4 times a day.
можно вылечить в домашних условиях за 6-7 дней. Burns 1 degree can be cured at home for 6-7 days. For burns of 2 degrees, when blisters appear, it is better to go to the hospital. But you can not open blisters alone!
надо срочно вызвать «скорую» помощь, до приезда медиков дать пострадавшему обезболивающие препараты, напоить чаем. With 3–4 degrees, it is necessary to urgently call an ambulance, give painkillers to the victim before the arrival of the doctors, drink tea.
For eye burns, the eyelids suffer the most. Try to direct water to the eyes, or remove burning particles with tweezers. Before the arrival of the ambulance, give the person a pain pill.
To avoid serious consequences
, ведь надо выяснить, от какого вещества получена травма. Chemical burns are most terrible, because you need to find out from what substance the injury was received. For chemical injuries, it is important for a very long time, more than 20 minutes, to flush the burned area with running water. Then it is necessary to neutralize the substance: neutralize the alkali with acid.
If it is necessary to neutralize the acid, then the diseased area must be treated with alkali.
Recipe : for 1 cup of water, take 1 teaspoon of soda and with this solution carefully treat the damaged place. Next, the burned area is again washed with tap water, then apply a dry dressing, without using any ointments. Further treatment procedures are prescribed by the doctor.
The worst effects are from damage to the mucous membranes of the mouth, nose, and eyes. Here only the doctor will cope.
First aid is as follows:
- flushing the mucous membranes and eyes with running water,
- if you suffocate, you must do artificial respiration through the nose,
- give more water when vomiting
- with swelling of the oral cavity, it is necessary to remove the saliva and mucus from the mouth. Further treatment prescribed by a doctor.
- Quicklime, trapped on the mucous membrane, can not be washed with water, it is necessary to remove the cotton swab dipped in sunflower oil.
How to find out what substance was injured
чаще всего страдают ноги, руки, туловище и лицо. Chemical injuries most often affect the legs, arms, torso and face. To render a PMP, it is necessary to find out from which substance the injury was received, as well as its degree of severity.
So, when sulfuric acid gets on the skin, a white crust or eschar forms on its surface layer, which then becomes black or brownish. The crust from hydrochloric acid will have a yellow tint, and from nitric acid - yellow with a greenish or brownish tinge.
, струп будет влажным или похожим на студень. When ingested with alkali , the scab will be wet or jelly-like. If an infection does not get into the wound, that is, it does not fester, then the scab will soon become dense, dry, begin to heal. After an alkaline burn, wound healing occurs more quickly than from acid damage.
The fact is that externally imperceptible electrical lesions on the skin leave small wounds through which electrical current penetrates deep into the body, causing very heavy damage to it.
The nervous system can be broken by current, which entails:
- loss of consciousness
- nerve palsy
- thermoregulation disorder
- even heart failure.
пострадавшего надо сразу убрать от источника тока: In case of electric burns, the victim must be immediately removed from the current source:
- cut the switch,
- remove a person from the wire (wooden, plastic or rubber object),
- wash the wound with water
- call a doctor without delay.
Sun friend or foe
When dosed under the sun, its rays become the best friend, because they help produce vitamin D, warm up the body well, and tanned skin looks very beautiful.
But if you fall for a long time under the sun, you can get damage to the epidermis. And how in the future it will respond, no one can predict, but it is proved that even once a burn, increases the risk of developing cancer of the dermis.
First aid for sun injuries : cooling the affected area with cold water for 5-7 minutes (but not ice), or a cold compress.
Do not lubricate sun damage with oil, ointment, grease or cream, it is better to apply a sterile dressing to reduce pain.
. If the pain is very strong, then hydrocortisone ointment will help. Lubricate the affected area can be 3 times a day.
или Аспирин , а вот смазывать растительным маслом никак нельзя, вы только задержите выздоровление. With intolerable pain, you can take Ibuprofen or Aspirin , but you can not lubricate with vegetable oil, you will only delay recovery.
Sun and children
, будьте особенно внимательны: волдыри не прокалывайте, окажите быструю помощь. If the child is burned , be especially careful: do not pierce blisters, give quick help. Symptoms may not appear immediately, but after 2 hours or in the evening. The tender skin of the child becomes red, swelling appears on it (1st degree), there is tenderness of the burned area, sometimes itching or burning.
с прозрачной жидкостью, то это говорит о том, что ребенок получил ожог 2-ой степени и это уже не шутки. When blisters with a clear liquid appear on the skin, this indicates that the child has received a second-degree burn and this is no longer a joke.
The baby becomes sluggish, capricious, with a wide area of the lesion may appear, vomiting, headache, body temperature can rise to 38-38.5 degrees.
To avoid this, follow some rules:
- Do not keep children under the sun for more than 20 minutes, especially babies. Even in such a short period of time, parents can make a lot of trouble.
- In addition to it, the baby can get a retinal lesion. This can be suspected by swelling, redness of the eyelids, tearing, deterioration of vision.
- Follow the drinking regime.
- Going to the beach with a child, take a panthenol-based burn spray. It has an excellent healing effect.
- Lubricate all exposed areas of the baby’s skin with sunscreens with a degree of protection from 30 to 60.
First aid for child burns
Have you noticed that the child has reloaded? What should I do?
- Put the kid in the shade.
- Water with cool water all the burned areas of the skin or apply a damp towel.
- Wrap the body with a wet sheet for 10-15 minutes.
- Make a bath with room temperature water by adding half a glass of soda.
- Do not sunbathe from 10-00 to 16-00 hours.
But if the child is less than a year old , then medical assistance is inevitable. Do not risk the health of your baby!
, мирамистин . If blisters appear, the doctor will most likely advise chlorhexidine , Miramistin . или солкосерилом . When the skin begins to heal, it can be treated with sea buckthorn oil or solkoserilom . Do not forget to drink plenty of water.
Despite the abundance of drugs, many people still use folk methods . One of them, the lubrication of whipped egg whites, the second - sour cream. If you want to have lesser consequences from an unsuccessful tan, then use the popular recipes as soon as you feel something is wrong, tomorrow they will not help.
It is strictly prohibited!
- Lubricate the affected areas with petroleum jelly, any vegetable oils.
- Apply ice to the skin, only wrapping it in a bag.
- Use funds on alcohol.
- Piercing blisters.
- Use scrubs.
First aid for burns with steam and boiling water
чаще всего получают женщины и дети. Indeed, women and children most often get burned by steam . Women because of the fuss in the kitchen, children - because of inexperience. What to do when you feel severe pain? First, free the burned area from your clothes. If the clothes are strongly attached to the skin, do not remove them very quickly, just carefully cut them with scissors, separate them from the body.
Bring the damaged area under the cold stream for 10-30 minutes. If there is no water, but there is ice, then apply ice, but only for 5-10 minutes, so as not to amass other problems. Then rinse with a weak solution of potassium permanganate and simply bind with a sterile bandage.
паром сильным не бывает, через несколько дней заживает без следа. Usually, a thermal burn with steam is not strong; after a few days it heals without a trace.
, сразу суньте его под холодную воду. If you burn your finger , immediately stick it under cold water. And hold a jet for a full minute, or even two. This is if the case occurred at home. In nature, simply stick your finger in the river or whatever you have nearby. The burned area cools and the pain passes almost immediately. After that, anoint your finger with any fat. The kitchen is suitable lean or butter.
I wish you never know such problems, but if this happened, take steps to provide first aid for burns, which you have just learned.