Awkward movement, external injury leads to a violation of the integrity of the joint and temporary incapacity. Competently rendered first aid in case of dislocation in many ways shortens the rehabilitation time and facilitates the healing of injuries.
What you will find in this article:
What is dislocation?
A joint is a joint of two or more bones located in an articular bag filled with fluid. In case of violation of the integrity of the bag or the displacement of bones relative to each other, dislocation occurs. The joint loses the ability to perform its functions, nerve fibers and blood vessels are damaged.
Dislocation is accompanied by pain, the joint swells, swells.
Depending on the reason for which there was a dislocation, allocate:
- Traumatic dislocations (consequence of joint injury);
- Congenital (appear in the period of prenatal development, and are present at birth);
- Pathological (caused by developing pathologies and diseases of the musculoskeletal system)
Signs of dislocation:
- Acute pain when trying to move or palpation of limb
- A change in the size and shape of the joint (swelling, swelling, deformity) noticeable to the naked eye
- Skin redness, fever
How to provide first aid for sprains
To provide first aid to the victim, it is necessary to know the general rules that are suitable for injuring any kind of joints:
- It is forbidden to independently try to return the bones to the place: replenishment - the process is quite painful, the painful shock is removed with the help of drugs in a medical institution. The manipulation must be carried out by a specialist. It is necessary not only to know how to set the bones in place, but also to make sure in advance that this is a dislocation, and not a broken bone. This conclusion allows us to give an x-ray image.
- For whatever reason, a malfunction in the joint arises, as a first measure it is required to ensure complete immobility of the damaged joint. Fixing tight bandage will not only ensure immobility, but also help reduce pain, swelling. For fixation, you can use an elastic bandage or materials at hand, as well as purchase, if possible, a finished orthopedic bandage. Its advantage is that various types of bandages are created for injuries of specific joints and therefore are most convenient for use.
- The victim needs to sit down, lie down, and conveniently arrange the injured joint in order to minimize or eliminate physical exertion on him.
- In order to reduce pain, swelling, prevent the formation of hematoma, it is necessary to apply a cold compress. Suitable as a cold pharmacy "hot-water bottle", and ice, products from the freezer (meat, vegetables). In extreme cases, you can use compresses with cold water, changing them as they heat. Blood vessel spasm resulting from exposure to cold will not allow blood to flow into the joint cavity and soft tissue.
- Severe pain does not need to endure, the patient is recommended to give painkillers.
- Even qualitatively rendered first aid does not replace the medical examination and the appointment of further treatment. Untreated dislocation becomes familiar over time, the patient ceases to notice inconvenience, but the load on the joint and the likelihood of repeated, more serious injuries, increases significantly in the future.
Dislocation of the joints of the upper limb
Clavicular joints are affected quite often. Dislocation is visually noticeable: the clavicular bone protrudes forward, and the clavicles are asymmetrical relative to each other. The victim is limited in movement, can not make movements with his hand, lift it up.
When the clavicle is injured, immobility is ensured by a bandage of the “kerchief” type: the limb on the injured side is bent at the elbow and fixed horizontally;
In the medical institution the victim goes sitting or reclining.
Depending on how the joint is damaged, shoulder dislocations are divided into groups:
- Frontal dislocations are common. In this case, the humeral head extends from the articular cavity, where it should normally be located, and is located anterior to the joint. The shoulder loses its usual roundness, the asymmetry of the shoulder girdle is observed. Hand movements cause severe pain, the elbow is not applied to the body.
- Lower dislocation occurs at the exit of the humeral head in the armpit. The skin and muscles become numb, the arm is fixed in the allotted position.
- The posterior dislocation is opposite to the anterior one; the head of the bone emerges from the articular sac posteriorly and is located in the region of the scapula.
Dislocation of the shoulder can be combined with fractures of individual sections of the bone (head, articular cavity, separation of tubercles). In this case, doctors say about a complicated fracture.
The standard version of the bandage bandage is also used for dislocation of the joints of the forearm. However, before fixing the joint, you should make sure of two things:
- The integrity of the vessels that feed the arm (pulse must be palpable on the wrist);
- The integrity of the nerve fibers (assessment of the sensitivity of the hand at different points)
If at least one of the points is in doubt, seek medical help immediately: irreversible changes, tissue necrosis will begin in two hours.
The consequences of such a dislocation - amputation of the arm.
Symptoms of lower extremity dislocation
Leg joints suffer even more often than arms. Hip dislocation is extremely painful, in order to avoid the death of the injured from traumatic shock, he must immediately be given an anesthetic (the injections act faster and more efficiently), apply ice (another cold) and fix the damaged joint.
Symptoms of ankle dislocation are similar to others — swelling, pain, inability to move.
First aid is to immobilize the joint. On him impose a tight pressure bandage. A cold is applied to the injury site, the leg is slightly raised and the victim is transported to the emergency room while lying down.
Since the hands and feet are rather strongly invaded, there is severe pain when dislocating a finger. The finger assumes an unnatural position, the skin turns red, a tumor appears.
For fixation in the provision of first aid, the injured finger is pinned to a healthy neighbor and seek medical help.
With unilateral dislocation, significant asymmetry is observed, the chin "looks" in the opposite direction of dislocation. With sprains from both sides, the chin "moves" downwards, the face is pulled out. The victim can not speak, copiously flowing saliva from the mouth.
The lower jaw is fixed by a bandage under it, a specialist should reset the dislocation. After installing the jaw joint in place, the victim is shown to be fed liquid food for 10-14 days, voice rest.
What is different from dislocation fracture?
Dislocation is a violation of the functionality of the joint due to displacement of its parts, while fracture is damage to the bones themselves, which form the joint.
Determine what kind of injury in question, can a specialist after studying the X-ray. Self-medication is dangerous and can lead to irreparable consequences!
The victim in any case (dislocation or fracture happened) must be ensured rest, fix the damaged joint, apply a cold and contact a specialist in the next two or three hours.