Iron deficiency in the body leads to the development of iron deficiency anemia. The causes of low hemoglobin can be different, for normal life it is necessary to restore the norm and maintain it.
What you will find in this article:
How to understand that low hemoglobin: symptoms
The circulatory system ensures the communication of organs and systems among themselves, is responsible for the trophic function and the delivery of oxygen to the tissues. Blood oxygen directly binds to hemoglobin, thus moving around the body.
Reduced hemoglobin levels lead to inadequate nutrition and energy supply of tissues, including the heart muscle and brain. Decreased hemoglobin makes itself felt:
- headache, dizziness;
- weakness, fatigue;
- lowering blood pressure, heart rhythm failure;
- pallor of the skin.
Iron deficiency is reflected in the appearance: the skin becomes dry, rough, much peels. In the corners of the mouth appear "bunches" - cracks that do not heal for a long time, hurt, bleed. Nails and hair are folded and broken, the hair grows very long and does not grow well, the hair style is thinning. In women, the menstrual cycle is lost.
Why hemoglobin can be lowered
There are a lot of reasons provoking a long-term decrease in blood hemoglobin:
- Iron deficiency anemia - a violation of the formation of hemoglobin, which appears as a result of a lack of iron or the inability to fully absorb it;
- Significant blood loss - prolonged menstrual bleeding, trauma, surgery, latent bleeding;
- Chronic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract - atrophic gastritis, inflammatory processes in the intestines, dysbacteriosis, hemorrhoids;
- Autoimmune disorders (lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis);
- Blood cancer;
- Diseases of the red bone marrow;
- Infectious diseases - hepatitis, tuberculosis, pneumonia;
- Malignant tumors.
Hemoglobin below normal is often observed during pregnancy, it is associated with an increase in circulating blood volume and hormonal changes. In infants, the indicators below the norm may be associated with artificial feeding with formula with insufficient amount of iron, or pathologies that prevent its full absorption.
Reduced hemoglobin may indicate the presence of another disease, a symptom of which is anemia: the pathology of the female reproductive system, the gastrointestinal tract. Not the last role is played by heredity.
How to determine hemoglobin level
Hemoglobin is a component of red blood cells, red blood cells. It consists of a protein part and iron atoms, connected to it by a chemical bond. Since hemoglobin has the ability to add oxygen, transfer it from the lungs to the tissues and give it to the "delivery point".
Iron enters the body with food and vitamin-mineral complexes. It is very important that the body has the ability to fully absorb the incoming iron. For this it is necessary to maintain an adequate level of vitamins of group B and in the first place - B 12 , folic acid.
The hemoglobin rate of blood varies and depends on several factors: gender, age, body weight.
In an adult male, a concentration from 130 to 170 g / l is considered normal. The greater the muscle mass, the higher the rate will be, since steroid hormones affect the hemoglobin level.
In women, the rate is slightly lower, from 120 to 150 g / l of blood. In pregnancy, the lower threshold drops to 110 g / l.
In children, boys and girls have the same hemoglobin rate:
- from birth to 14 days - 135-195 g / l;
- up to a year - 125 -165 g / l;
- from the year - 110-130 g / l;
- 7 years - 115-135 g / l;
- adolescence - 125-145 g / l.
How to take a blood test
To determine the level of hemoglobin, complete blood count is done, on the finger, on an empty stomach. On the eve, it is not recommended to smoke, consume alcoholic beverages, eat fatty and fried foods, physically or mentally overwork. Acceptance of some drugs distorts the picture, so before passing the tests it is necessary to warn about the drug therapy of the attending physician.
Consequences of Chronic Hemoglobin Reduction
The decrease in the index adversely affects the state of the organism as a whole. Hemoglobin deficiency is manifested by weakness, fatigue and apathy. Dizziness, fainting, drowsiness appear. Reduced performance.
The skin is dry, pale, peeling, cracking.
Heart rhythm is disturbed, pressure drops, headaches are haunting. Hair falls out, nails exfoliate, grow poorly. Smooth muscle tone decreases, involuntary urination, convulsions may occur. The immune system reacts to a decrease in hemoglobin: the most insignificant infection threatens with serious complications.
Insufficient hemoglobin level in a pregnant woman adversely affects the health of the fetus and during pregnancy:
- low attachment or placenta previa;
- reduced muscle tone of the uterus;
- hypoxia - insufficient blood supply to the fetus;
- delay / stop intrauterine development;
- fetal hypotrophy;
- disorders in the child from the respiratory and nervous system;
- retardation in mental and physical development.
How to increase hemoglobin
Drugs containing iron are not the same. In some, iron in an accessible bivalent form, in others - difficult to absorb trivalent. Ascorbic and succinic acid promote suction. Among the popular drugs are maltofer, ferrum lek, gemofer prolongatum, tardiferon, actiferin, venofer, ferkovin and others. Some of them are intended for oral administration, some are administered intravenously or intramuscularly.
Courses of iron supplements are long, from several months to a year. The drug must be prescribed by a doctor.
Using food to cure serious anemia is not easy, but to change the diet, to focus on healthy foods is necessary.
The menu must be:
- beef, chicken meat;
- buckwheat, legumes;
- onions, tomatoes, potatoes, pumpkins;
- fruits - green apples, bananas, pomegranates, peaches, apricots, plums, quince, persimmon;
- dried fruits;
- fruit and vegetable juices.
What if anemia is not treatable? In severe cases of chronic anemia, doctors perform blood transfusions.
Hemoglobin levels should be monitored by feeling the symptoms of anemia. Take a blood test to start treatment of the disease in a timely manner