Symptoms of cardiac arrhythmias in many cases occur spontaneously and do not necessarily indicate a serious disturbance of the cardiovascular system. However, feeling unwell, you need to know what to do to stop an attack, and how to give first aid.
What you will find in this article:
Normally, a healthy person's heart shrinks from 60 to 90 beats per minute. Sinus node - a complex formation in the right atrium, producing electrical impulses.
Thanks to him, the atria are reduced, and the excitation is transmitted to the atrioventricular node. It is located on the border of the atria and ventricles. It is the atrioventricular node that gives the signal to reduce the ventricles.
If a failure occurs at some stage, the heart rate and rhythm are disturbed, a condition called cardiac arrhythmia occurs.
Causes of heart rhythm disorders
Among the conditions that provoke arrhythmia, note:
- diseases of the cardiovascular system;
- diabetes and other endocrine disorders;
- alcohol abuse;
- stressful situations;
Additional risk factors consider:
- Hereditary predisposition;
- An imbalance of potassium, calcium, magnesium and sodium ions in the blood;
- Stimulant abuse (caffeine, nicotine, amphetamine);
- Exposure to toxic substances
Common signs of heart failure
- heart palpitations
- interruptions in heartbeat, interspersed with "fluttering", strong blows
- uneven rhythm
- chest pain
Types of cardiac arrhythmia
Sinus transmission rhythm increases significantly, rapid heartbeat. Pulse rate exceeds 90 beats per minute.
The reasons are physical and psycho-emotional overload, fever, cardiovascular diseases.
A condition in which the number of heartbeats decreases significantly and is less than 50 beats per minute is called bradycardia.
The patient feels weakness, discomfort in the chest, dizziness. The reason may be a decrease in blood pressure, thyroid dysfunction, cardiovascular disease.
This type of heart rhythm disorder is quite common in children and does not pose a threat to health.
A characteristic feature of sinus arrhythmias is an uneven increase in and slowing of heart contractions.
People who have experienced this type of arrhythmia feel sudden, premature heartbeats (jolts), which can manifest with greater or lesser intensity.
Depending on which chambers of the heart are contracted irregularly, ventricular, atrial, and atrial ventricular forms are isolated.
Extrasystole occurs due to the appearance of additional pacemakers and is felt as strong sudden tremors in the chest.
Along with the failure of the rhythm, the rate of breathing may be disturbed, choking may occur. The heart stops for a short time, the patient feels anxiety, panic. May faint.
Heart rate accelerates, but it happens evenly. The heart rate is about 140 -240 beats per minute.
Paroxysms are accompanied by lethargy, fatigue, increased sweating, hand tremor.
Atrial fibrillation is characterized by impaired conduction of electrical impulses and chaotic contraction of the atrial muscles. Full reduction does not occur, there is stagnation of blood. Pathology is fraught with thrombosis.
The patient feels pain from the heart area, shortness of breath, respiratory failure. There may be convulsions of the limbs, fainting, cardiac arrest.
Ventricular tachycardia ("pirouette")
A life-threatening condition in which the ventricles of the heart contract at an accelerated pace.
The patient feels a strong fast heartbeat, pain and a burning sensation in the chest, in the throat - a “lump”, anxiety, panic increase. The skin becomes pale, there comes a sudden weakness, clouding of consciousness until fainting.
Proper nutrition - what is wrong with arrhythmias?
Patients with impaired heart rate, it is important to follow a diet:
- reduce the amount of salt in food;
- steam, boil, simmer foods (do not fry);
- eat often, fractional portions;
- food should not be hot;
- at least half of the diet should be vegetables, fruits, greens;
- smoked sausages, lard, pickled vegetables, home canned food are prohibited;
- you can not eat foods rich in cholesterol, fatty meat;
- fermented milk products with low fat content are allowed;
- banned fast food, food from convenience foods;
- alcohol is strictly forbidden, it is recommended to refuse coffee, strong tea
Statistics state that women’s heart rhythm disorder occurs one and a half times less than men. Conception is due to lifestyle, physical activity, bad habits.
Before making a diagnosis, it is necessary to undergo a comprehensive examination. A single manifestation of arrhythmia should not cause panic, but with repeated symptoms should consult a cardiologist.
Any treatment is prescribed by a doctor (arrhythmologist) after the examination, according to the results of analyzes, ECG, history taking and assessment of the patient's condition.
It is important to remember that in some cases, the arrhythmia is asymptomatic, so the key to timely detection of the disease is regular medical examination.
Failure of the heart rhythm can be caused by physical and mental stress, diseases of the heart and internal organs, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dysfunction of the thyroid gland. The disease manifests itself by increasing or slowing heart rate, chest pain, weakness, increased sweating. To diagnose and prescribe treatment should a specialist.