Gastritis is one of the most common diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and is a serious, serious illness. Symptoms and treatment of gastritis depend on the form of the disease.
What you will find in this article:
What is gastritis
Gastritis is an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the stomach, formed as a result of chemical or mechanical damage. Such inflammation leads to disruption of the gastrointestinal tract and food digestion.
Inflammation of the mucous membranes of the duodenum is called duodenitis. Complex inflammation of the stomach and duodenum is known in medicine as gastroduodenitis.
Gastritis itself is not in the group of dangerous diseases, but it can give rise to the development of such diseases as:
- Stomach cancer
- Gastric and duodenal ulcer
- Gastric bleeding
Older people are susceptible to the development of such diseases as focal gastritis (damage to the mucous walls of the stomach, the formation of inflammation, erosions and ulcers, which in various places affect the entire stomach area)
Depending on what level of acidity, gastritis can be hyperacidic (high acidity) and hypocidal (with low acidity). Gastritis can pass in a chronic and acute form.
Types of gastritis
3 stages of gastritis:
The fourth stage, hypertrophic, is rare and practically unexplored.
Acute gastritis manifests itself due to the impact of food, liquids, drugs on the mucous membranes of the stomach. Lasts for 2-3 hours and disrupts the digestive tract. Types of acute gastritis:
- Catarrhal A mild form of the disease in which the painful urge quickly passes. May be associated with mild food poisoning and irregular nutrition. Also called simple or superficial.
- Fibrinous. Associated with damage to fibrin, which is a protein film that covers the gastric mucosa. It can be a consequence of heavy metal, alkali and acid poisoning.
- Erosive (necrotic). Diagnosed with the defeat of all layers of the stomach. May cause bleeding.
- Phlegmanous. There is a purulent lesion of the mucous surfaces of the stomach due to the development of diaphoretic bacteria. If time is not taken, this type of acute gastritis can be fatal due to sepsis.
Chronic gastritis develops more sluggish and has weak symptoms. Divided into three types:
- Type A - Autoimmune (atrophic). It is the result of an impaired immune system. Often can lead to atrophy of the mucous membranes of the stomach.
- Type B - Antral. Manifested by the development and reproduction of Helicobacter pylori.
- Type C - Chemical. It happens when bile is released into the stomach. Often diagnosed after taking certain medications (anti-inflammatory nonsteroidal drugs)
During pregnancy, gastritis is not dangerous to the life and health of the baby. The future mother may experience symptoms of gastritis right up to the birth, but the baby is born without any pathologies.
Causes of gastritis
Acute gastritis and its causes:
- Poor quality foods, foods containing pathogens
- Infection, penetration of bacteria into the human body
- Toxic and chemical ingestion
- Frequent excessive drinking of strong alcohol
- Acceptance of individual groups of medicinal drugs
- "Side effect" of other diseases
- Disturbed metabolic processes
Chronic gastritis in adults and children occurs due to:
- Infections, parasites, bacteria
- Inadequate, irregular nutrition "dry ration"; inadequate chewing food
- A large number of spicy, salty foods in the diet
- Alcohol and Smoking
- Stress, neurosis, depression
- Chemical poisoning
- Surgical removal of part of the stomach (for medical reasons)
- Endocrine Disorders
- Hereditary predisposition
Duodenal reflux is another reason for the development of chronic gastritis. This pathological discharge of bile into the stomach from the duodenum. In the stomach, bile changes the acidity of the juice and causes irritation of the mucous surfaces. The inflammation of the antral part of the stomach wall begins, after which all other parts of the organ "suffer".
Symptomatology and diagnosis of the disease
The most common symptoms of gastritis:
- Various pains in the upper abdomen, manifested during meals
- Lack of appetite
- Weight loss
- Feeling weak
- Head spin
- Belching and Heartburn
- Unpleasant taste in the mouth
- The tongue is covered with a blob of gray-white or dirty yellow.
In infectious gastritis, the patient may have a fever. With atrophic chronic gastritis, pallor, drowsiness, increased perspiration, and indigestion may suddenly appear.
The peculiarity of chronic gastritis is that it develops slowly, with frequent relapses. Exacerbation of chronic gastritis is especially often observed in the summer and spring periods.
Signs of gastritis vary depending on the level of acidity. So with gastritis with increased acidity, patients develop heartburn after acidic foods, frequent belching and diarrhea. The pain at the same time is felt in the navel and gives to the right hypochondrium.
Patients with low acidity experience symptoms such as: heavy feeling after eating, belching with a rotten smell, bad breath, irregular stools, morning nausea.
In the diagnosis of gastritis, the following studies are conducted:
- Gastroscopy - an overview of the mucous surface of the stomach with the help of special equipment.
- The study of gastric juice in the laboratory.
- Biopsy of the gastric mucosa.
- Blood test and feces.
- Ultrasound examination of the stomach
Treatment of acute gastritis
Acute gastritis can be accompanied by inflammation of the larynx and renal failure, especially when ingested by chemical agents. In such cases, self-medication is unacceptable, and you should seek immediate medical attention.
In acute gastritis, doctors perform the following actions:
- Washing the stomach with plain water or saline. Having drunk the liquid, the patient should press on the root of the tongue, specifically provoking vomiting. Continue the action until vomit will contain food particles.
- Fasting on the first day. Allowed only weak tea, decoction of chamomile or mint, mineral water without gas.
- Sticking to a sparing diet.
- Elimination of pain and spasms medication.
- Drugs that help to stop pain and relieve inflammation - tablets (proton pump inhibitors) "Omez", "Omeprazol", have positive feedback and gives visible results.
- Relieving symptoms of nausea and vomiting using medications.
- Antibiotic therapy for intoxication.
Treatment of chronic gastritis
How to cure chronic gastritis?
In most cases, the causes of chronic gastritis are the bacteria Helicobacter pylori. Therefore, when diagnosing it is important to conduct a survey on the detection of this pathogen, it is also important to do an analysis of gastric juice. Based on the results obtained, a treatment regimen is selected.
The main stages of the treatment of chronic gastritis:
- Selection of a suitable diet.
- Anti-helicobacter therapy.
- The use of drugs that reduce the level of acidity (for patients with high acidity)
- Farm replacement therapy (for patients with low acidity).
- In most cases with anti-gastric therapy, the doctor prescribes antibiotics.
- In addition to drugs in the treatment of gastritis are allowed and traditional methods, which should be reported to your doctor.
Diet with increased acidity. Products that help reduce acidity:
- Fresh dairy, non-acidic foods (yogurt, cottage cheese)
- Boiled eggs
- Boiled lean fish
- Boiled vegetables
- Salad, onion, dill
- Soup on low-fat broth, with the addition of pureed vegetables.
You can also use sunflower oil, vermicelli, cereal, bread, tea, coffee.
Nutrition with low acidity:
- Vegetable soups in low-fat broth
- Low-fat fish (pink salmon)
- Non-acidic dairy products
- Stale bread
- Boiled vegetables, as well as raw vegetables
- Tea. Coffee, cocoa.
For gastritis of any form with any level of acidity, the following products are strictly prohibited:
- Alcoholic drinks
- Fresh flour products
- Rye bread
- Oily fish and meat
- Roast potatoes
- Hard Cheese
- Chocolate candy
- Fruit can only be eaten without peel (including grapes)
Observing the correct diet and the prescriptions of the attending physician significantly increases the chances of a speedy recovery.
Treatment of gastritis folk remedies is very popular and gives good results. But still, before you do the "medicine" at home, you should consult with your doctor.
Folk herbal therapy at the beginning can cause heartburn, but after a short period, the condition returns to normal.
Wormwood will help patients with low acidity of gastric juice, which reduces inflammation and increases appetite.
To prepare the infusion, you need to chop the wormwood , the root of the marsh calamus and the fruits of cumin in equal proportions. 1st.l. the mixture is brewed with a cup of boiling water and languishes in a water bath for 20 minutes. After that, the mixture must be drained and pour boiled water to a full cup. Take "medicine" should be 1 tbsp. 30 minutes before meals.
With increased acidity, chamomile, yarrow, calendula, and plantain are recommended. Mix plants in equal parts and pour a tablespoon of the mixture with a glass of boiling water. Let stand for two hours, then strain. Then topping up with boiled water, bring to the volume of a full glass. Drink 30 minutes before meals for 1/3 cup.
Fighting with gastritis it is recommended to use fresh juices (cherries, pomegranate, black currant, sweet cherry). Just follow the rules and do not drink too much juice, otherwise you can cause even more damage to the body.
Gastritis treatment requires strict adherence to the prescribed diet and all doctor's prescriptions. As a prevention of the disease should be followed by proper nutrition.